Tag Archives: Creation

Lesson in Obedience

[A Caveat: As with all my writings, I explain things in the way they make sense to me. In doing so, I often blindly wander into minefields of explanation into which scholars, saints and angels wisely do not venture. Therefore, take all I write not just with a grain of salt but with a whole mine of it. Please, please, please consider that I am just me, one very finite, very myopic, often very confused and mistaken man. I am often wrong. However, God guarantees the infallibility of the Catholic Church. Thus, if anything that I write contradicts or in any way conflicts with what the One, Holy, Apostolic Catholic Church has stated or defined, I profoundly apologize to my readers for misleading them, to the Church for contradicting our infallible Faith, Scripture and Tradition, and I beg God to have mercy on me, forgive me and write straight the crooked lines your wayward servant has written. I beg the forgiveness of all and ask for your prayers that I might have the guidance and inspiration of the Holy Spirit to see aright once again.]

It is encouraging to me to realize that even Jesus needed lessons in obedience. Not that He ever disobeyed God the Father. But that obedience came into conflict with obedience to his parents. He needed to grow in discernment and understanding, to mature just as we do, to be able to listen to the Father through His mother and step-father, or, as Luke puts it, He needed to go down to Nazareth and to be obedient to them in order to advance in wisdom and age and favor before God and man.[2] [Lk 2:52] Note that this obedience to His parents was necessary not just to advance in the opinion of men, but also, and perhaps especially, in the reality, the Truth that is God.

God had made it necessary for Jesus to be absorbed into, to become part of the fabric of his family, of the community at Nazareth, of the society around him. He could not hold himself aloof, to separate himself from the warp and woof of everyday life, to go off to study scripture with the priests in the temple, not even to go up to the mountain and pray alone, without realizing that His connection with the world, with His purpose, why He was there, with the Truth, the real reason why He went up to the mountain to pray…for His people back to Adam and forward to the end of time.

God speaks to us of this universal interrelationship through His creation, through the earth, through the everyday activities of earth. This is true of you, of me, even of the hermit and the cloistered. Their day and ours are strewn with ordinary routines, encounters with Him through our bodies, our activities, our emotions, our thoughts as we swim in the His Divine milieu of creation.

The lesson for me? As much as I may wish to be united to God and to the things of God here on earth, to go apart and have an eternal I-Thou love-in, God wants me to realize that He made me to praise, reverence and serve Him directly but also and continually through my every thought, word and action with which I interact with all around me; these repercuss in ever expanding waves washing over the whole world and over all around me.

[2] Scripture texts in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C. and are used by permission of the copyright owner. All Rights Reserved. No part of the New American Bible may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Hereafter, NABRE.


The Perspective of Perfection

Only non-divine entities define perfection. Perfection, by its very nature, is a matter of comparison, if only with a Platonic image in the mind. From God’s perspective, He simply is, without comparison, perfection, and what He “speaks” in creation, each and every leaf, rock, tsunami, fire, hydrocephalic child is perfect, unique, as He knows it, loves it into being.

Not only is each creation perfect in itself, but also somehow, within the perspective of creation as God sees creation, it fits perfectly with all the rest.

It is only when we, with our finite minds, our one location viewpoint, our limited historical vantage, view an individual, that we begin to categorize and lump together and define (from the Latin words for “completely” and “limit or boundary”), that we begin to compare with other similar creations, to contrast with them, to place value judgments based, again, on our limited perspective. We don’t see the whole picture, i.e., the forest is perfect, each tree fitting a unique and irreplaceable niche, even if from our perspective, we may not be able to comprehend the whole picture. We don’t and won’t get it. We don’t and can’t take the infinity necessary to understand the uniqueness of this individual, the myriad of relationships within which this creation rests and the precision of love that placed that creation here and now.

Maybe, then, from our perspective, we should reserve value judgments,….forever.

Amen. Alleluia!!!

Breadth and Length and Height and Depth, Part 1

Breadth and Length and Height and Depth

Prayer for the Readers: Eph 3:14-21

For this reason I kneel before the Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named, that he may grant you in accord with the riches of his glory to be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inner self, and that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; that you, rooted and grounded in love, may have strength to comprehend with all the holy ones what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ that surpasses knowledge, so that you may be filled with all the fullness of God. Now to him who is able to accomplish far more than all we ask or imagine, by the power at work within us, to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations, forever and ever. Amen.[1]

A puzzling paragraph….As one does with a masterpiece of art, examining each portion of the painting reveals depths never seen if one simply takes it all in at once and moves on.  This paragraph has spoken to me my whole life.  It needs examining, close examining phrase by phrase.  We can take our time, we have all eternity.  We can wander through the fields of wisdom the Holy Spirit has given us and enjoy the wonder of, the inspiration of, the glory of just these few words of Scripture.

For this reason: This seems to be referring to the previous paragraph where Paul gives this reason: to preach to the Gentiles the inscrutable riches of Christ, and to bring to light [for all] what is the plan of the mystery hidden from ages past in God who created all things, so that the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known through the church to the principalities and authorities in the heavens.

To preach,…to bring to light…the manifold wisdom of God. It reminds me of There is nothing hidden that will not be revealed. There is nothing kept secret that will not come to light which all three Synoptics quote. [Mt 10:26; Lk 8:17; Mk 4:22] or of Jesus telling the disciples that the Advocate, the holy Spirit that the Father will send in my name—he will teach you everything and remind you of all that [I] told you. [Jn 14:26]

I kneel before the Father: It would seem that, if we are preaching the inscrutable riches of Christ, it should be Christ before whom Paul is kneeling, a’la Thomas’ My Lord and my God. [Jn 20:28]. But it is the overwhelming realization that it is the Providence and plan of the Father, the God who created all things, this infinitely orchestrated plan of the mystery hidden from ages past, conceived in every minute detail before Creation itself, that brings Paul to his knees. It is manifold wisdom of the Father, this 360° reality of Salvation unfolding in real time and space known before the foundation of the world but revealed in the final time [1Pet 1:20] that will now be made known through the church to the principalities and authorities in the heavens.

From whom every family[2] in heaven and on earth is named: Naming plays an important role in Scripture and in the lives of the ancients. Naming something gave one some control, some power over that thing. “God, the creator of all the families of beings, established his power and control over all creation in the act of naming them (He numbers the stars, and gives to all of them their names. [Ps 147:4]; Lift up your eyes on high and see who created these: He leads out their army and numbers them, calling them all by name. [Isa 40:26]; cf. Gen 2:19-20).”[3]

This is borne out also in the first days of creation when God names those things that are beyond the immediate use by and control of man, the Cosmos, the sky, the earth, the sea: God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” God called the dome “sky.” God called the dry land “earth,” and the basin of water he called “sea.” (Gen 1:5, 8, 10) However, then, in both the Elohim (Gen 1-2:3) and the Yahweh (Gen 2:4-3:24) versions of Creation, there is a distinct break where the LORD stops naming things and, in both versions, gives that responsibility over to man:

  • Let us make human beings in our image, after our likeness. Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, the tame animals, all the wild animals, and all the creatures that crawl on the earth. [Gen 1:26]
  • So the LORD God formed out of the ground all the wild animals and all the birds of the air, and he brought them to the man to see what he would call them; whatever the man called each living creature was then its name. (Gen 2:19)

Thus, God gives man power over the creatures with which he would interact, use and control, at least to some degree. And in the latter version, this power is established by man naming the creatures.

How does this relate to God from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named? One could point to God’s renaming of the first Patriarch and his wife: No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I am making you the father of a multitude of nations….As for Sarai your wife, do not call her Sarai; her name will be Sarah. (Genesis 17:5,15) But this renaming, while symbolic, doesn’t seem to come up to Paul’s every family, particularly since the meaning of the names did not change.[4]

The more plausible explanations are (a) that the Father is the ultimate father, i.e. of the Trinity, His eternal family, and the archetype of all families, and (b) that the same Father both providentially foreordained each family and then created them, thus exhibiting his power over or naming every family in heaven and on earth.

In passing, it is interesting to note that Paul includes families in heaven. Since Jesus pointed out that human, at the resurrection…neither marry nor are given in marriage but are like the angels in heaven [Mt 22:30], one must look for a different definition of family. Jesus provides that when asked about his family: For whoever does the will of my heavenly Father is my brother, and sister, and mother. [Mk 3:35; Mt 12:49; Lk 8:21] Here, our heavenly Father is tied directly in to all families, beyond the ties of blood and heritage to the ties of the Kingdom and obedience and love. It is perhaps in this context that every family in heaven and on earth is named by God as his adopted sons and daughters: I will be a father to you, and you shall be sons and daughters to me, says the Lord Almighty. [2 Cor 6:18; cf. Eph 1:5].

(To be continued)

[1] Scripture texts in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C. and are used by permission of the copyright owner. All Rights Reserved. No part of the New American Bible may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

[2] “The term (Gk. patria) refers to a group of related individuals who trace their origin to a common father or forefather and is linguistically related to the word Father (Gk. pater) in the preceding verse. Because God is the supreme Father of men and angels, his life-giving paternity is the reality of which created fatherhood and family life are only a reflection. (CCC 239, 2214)” Note for Eph 3:15, Scott Hahn and Curtis Mitch, The New Testament: The Ignatius Catholic Study Bible RSV 2nd Catholic Edt (San Frncisco, Ignatius Press, 2010), 349

[3] Note on Eph 3:15, Paul Kobelski, “The Letter to the Ephesians,” The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Edts. R. Brown, J. Fitzmyer, and R. Murphy (Upper Saddle River, Prentic Hall, 1990), 888.

[4]“Abram and Abraham are merely two forms of the same name, both meaning, “the father is exalted”; another variant form is Abiram (Nm 16:1; 1 Kgs 16:34). The additional -ha- in the form Abraham is explained by popular etymology as coming from ab-hamon goyim, ‘father of a multitude of nations.’”…“Sarai and Sarah are variant forms of the same name, both meaning ‘princess.’” NABRE Notes on Gen 17:5 and 17:15.


Posted on May 14, 2015


I don’t know about you, but I often wish that Jesus was still among us, that he had not ascended,  and that I could see Him and talk to Him.  It would simplify a lot of things: He would be here to explain exactly what He meant about this or that, He could, if he wished, solve world crises, He could, if He wished, cure all sickness, eliminate all violence, and bring heavenly peace to the world…

That’s not the way it happened however.  After His Resurrection, He appeared to various people and groups, and, as Paul points out, even when He appeared to more than five hundred brothers at once [1Cor 15:6], it was always “at one time.” His appearances were temporal, i.e. within time and space, one at a time, as Paul again testified: after that he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. I am not saying that He could not, had He wished, bi- or multi-located simultaneously, but to validate His true human Resurrection in a single human body, He demonstrated his presence by enjoying fish with His apostles at least twice [Lk 24:43; Jn 21:15] and by showing his disciples his hands and his feet [Lk 24:39-40] and by having Thomas put his finger in the holes in his hand and his hand in the hole in his side [Jn 20:27],and by appearing in only one place at one time.

But then I begin thinking about it and that wouldn’t have been such a good idea.  Why didn’t He remain on earth, which He could have done, I was consider what that would have meant.  It certainly would have had a negative impact: (a) if He continued His single place at a single time, He would either have had to stay in one place, in which case, the world would be on pilgrimage to Him, the place would have been totally mobbed, and no matter how many Trinitron huge screens they set up, it would not have been enough; (b) if he did appear from place to place, he would have, perforce, been distanced from at least most of His followers all the time, especially those who were too poor to make the trip, but these were the very people with whom He identified; (c) He would be able to show the common touch to each “lucky” soul only every once in a while, having to make the entire circuit of the world; meanwhile the rest of humanity longed for his comforting; (d) while, because of His resurrected status, He himself would be immune from assassins, the ire of his opponents would have been turned on His followers even more ferociously than has happened.   And I am not even taking into consideration the historical, political and social ramifications, all of which would have been significantly impacted by His presence and periodic appearances.

The spiritual ramifications would have been even more devastating.  The value of the Eucharist, His Divine and human presence in our midst, would have been undermined… “if we can see him in person, isn’t that better than His Body and Blood in transformed Bread and Wine?” The only sacred place on earth would be where He was at that particular time.  Reconciliations through priests would be considered at least second rate in comparison with a one-on-one with Jesus.  How could 1 billion people share a meal…we couldn’t even get to the same place, the same table, at the same time.  Would He have had to devote Himself to “running” the Church…and, if He continually sent out new disciples to minister to His people, they would have been considered inferior to seeing “The God/Man” in person.  Contemplation would loose its efficacy; it would be considered much better to be physically in His presence.  In essence, His whole emphasis on the worship of the Father through Him would have given way to the misplaced human idolatry of Him by the paparazzi on earth, with little or no thought to the inevitability of the eschatological heavenly Kingdom, let alone the innate purpose here on earth of each to praise, reverence and serve God, loving Him with our whole heart, our whole mind, all our strength and all our soul.

[1] Scripture texts in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C. and are used by permission of the copyright owner. All Rights Reserved. No part of the New American Bible may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

So why a Church?

So why the Church? This is actually a whole plethora of questions rolled into one. I’ll ask the Spirit to help me look at two: Why any Church? And why the Catholic Church?

Why any Church? First, I am not talking bricks and mortar. I am talking a faith community, it is the “we” in the “Our”; God is “Our” Father, not just my Father.

There is a difference between belief and faith. I recite in the creeds, “I believe”. What I believe is important, is gleaned from a faith community, perhaps many faith communities, plus my own reflections and thoughts, an amalgam of what I believe. But there is a transition from belief to faith. It’s the transition from “I believe” to “I believe,” the personalization, the identification, the commitment to, the living in accordance with the what, the belief. For the simple reason, faith is the realization of what is hoped for and evidence of things not seen. [1] [Heb 11:1] “Realization” is the making real to me; “evidence” is sometimes translated “conviction,” but either ultimately stem from videre, “to see,” not just to stand under [understand] and view, but to grok with the eyes of the heart, to peer into the essence of the reality and behold the face of God. Indeed, this is often my problem, I may believe, I may be able to mouth the words, but I haven’t made them my own, I haven’t covenanted with them, I haven’t recognized the God Life in them, I haven’t loved them, I haven’t lived them.

So why a Church? Because such lived belief, such faith, is in Jesus; from the incarnational point of view, it is not sought out there in the heavens or in the recesses of my mind, it is found in community, communion with the Jesus, with His Spirit, and through them with the Father. And not even Them out there, but in these, us least of His brothers and sisters, us whom Paul persecuted, us who gather by twos and threes and welcome Them in our midst. Because God has revealed to us that He is so intimately bound to each and every person through His Son and Spirit, I cannot hope to find Them in the Trinity’s infinite diversity and wisdom, mercy and love if I try to find Them in my sinful self alone. I need to find, to see, to experience Them in Their myriad and every fascinating manifestations in each person I meet and in each community I share. “Religion’s main and final goal is to reconnect us (re-ligio) to the Whole, to ourselves, and to one another—and thus heal us.” [R. Rohr]

Not that I do this well. I sometimes prefer to hole up in my own cubby of a world and pretend that the rest don’t exist, or at least don’t matter. It’s called self-idolization. I’m god and I believe in me and I’m in charge and everything and everybody else either better take note and fly right or get out of the way. Of course, such hubris has, as the Greeks observed, its inevitable fall, its crumbling tumble into reality. And for this I need the faith community more than ever, to bear with me when I build my Babels, to pick up the pieces and put my Humpty back together with mercy, love and forgiveness, and to welcome back the battered and scarred sheep with loving and open arms to again form our community of faith and trust in our loving God. Please forgive me, Lord, Jesus, Spirit, Father, and my sisters and brothers, I blew it again, but I’m back to try once more with Your help.

[1] Scripture texts in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C. and are used by permission of the copyright owner. All Rights Reserved. No part of the New American Bible may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

You are “THE MAN”!

There are three major events in Scripture where the phrase: “The Man” is critical to the scene.

In Genesis, Lord, in the beginning, You created me, the Man; In Genesis, Lord, in the beginning, You created me, the Man: the LORD God formed the man out of the dust of the ground and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.[1] Out of the earth You created me. Only after You create man do you create the animals in an attempt to find a suitable companion for man. When this “proved” to be a proper helper, in this Priestly version of creation, You create woman out of his rib. You settle us in the garden of Eden, to cultivate and care for it. [Gen 2:15] We were both naked, yet…[we] felt no shame [Gen 2:25], totally innocent. And Your directive is that we are free to eat from any of the trees of the garden except the tree of knowledge of good and evil. From that tree you shall not eat; when you eat from it you shall die. [Gen 2:16-17]

In this story, You call me “man” before I am even created. You are the main actor and also the one who judges Your creation to be man. What is “sacrificed,” i.e. “made holy,” is creation. At that time, I am totally innocent, without the blemish of any sin. You give me the responsibility to rule over creation and the outcome for me is perpetual stewardship.

I wander far from this innocence, however as is evident the next time The LORD addresses “the Man” when he sends Nathan to David [2 Sam 12:1]. Nathan has told David the parable about the poor man’s single lamb and how the rich man, who had flocks of sheep, took the poor man’s only lamb and slaughtered it to serve it to his guest. Nathan has told David: “Tell me how you judge this case.” [2 Sam 12:1]… David grew very angry with that man and said to Nathan: “As the LORD lives, the man who has done this deserves death! He shall make fourfold restitution for the lamb because he has done this and was unsparing.” Then Nathan said to David: “You are the man! [2 Sam 12:5-7]

Here You use a parable to have David condemn his sin and realize his guilt. While Nathan is the prophet, Your voice in this drama, it is actually David who pronounces his own judgment. You chastise him, pronounce a condemnation: now, therefore, the sword shall never depart from your house, [2 Samuel 12:10] which, centuries later, will even cause the massacre of all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity two years old and under [Mt 2:16] and later the death of his most holy and blessed heir.

Though David is spared, the lamb, both in the parable and in the birth child, is sacrificed. For his part, the LORD has removed your sin. You shall not die, but since you have utterly spurned the LORD by this deed, the child born to you will surely die. [2 Sam 12:13-14][2] The Man is here judged and punishment meted out.

God, You have built up to this moment, this redefinition of Man and innocence, and it tragically occurs when Your only begotten Son is being displayed for acceptance or condemnation: So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple cloak. And he said to them, “Behold, the man!” [Jn 19:5] In contrast to the story of creation and the parable of David, You give me the chillingly graphic reality narrative of Jesus’ persecution. Unlike the bliss of Eden or the grandeur of the palace, I stand in Pilate’s praetorium. Unlike the innocent nakedness of Adam or the kingly robes of David, Jesus wears a crown out of thorns and…a purple cloak and is mocked as King of the Jews! [Jn 19:2-3] Instead of being in the prime of health, newly created, or in kingly fighting trim, Jesus’s body was torn, gashed, bloody from scourging. As if to exonerate himself and distance him from the mockery of justice, Pilate tells the crowd: “Look, I am bringing him out to you, so that you may know that I find no guilt in him.” [Jn 19:4]

In contrast to Adam, whose creation God judged very good [Gen 1:31], in contrast to David whom Nathan condemns by David’s own admission, Jesus is condemned by his own people: When the chief priests and the guards saw him they cried out, “Crucify him, crucify him!” [Jn 19:6]

After creating Adam and condemning David, Jesus is “the Man” who takes their place, steps into their shoes, stands in for them and redeems them both. The poor man’s lamb slain by the rich man is the Lamb of God, slain for poor men by us who have received the riches of the universe from His Father. The new Adam’s innocence is to be hung on the cross to save us, the David’s of this world. The judged and condemned like David is the new judge of all creation. The One who takes David’s and our punishment upon Himself is the one who, by this very action, gives me instead mercy and redemption, a new beginning, a new creation.

Now behold the fourth man, this man, me, who was created very good like Adam, who with David must admit, I have sinned against the LORD [2 Sam 12: 13], and who therefore should be the one standing before the crowd, scourged and worthy of condemnation, for even frightened and cowardly traitor to the Truth Pilate could not say of me: I find no guilt in him. This is “the Man,” created, sinful and, by the grace and through the mercy of God, redeemed. This is cross that I must bear, this guilt that I must acknowledge, yet also this great gift, unearned, undeserved, unforeseen and unprecedented, to which I must cling. May I accept my place with You, Jesus, as I accepted my place with Adam and David, that I might carry my cross daily and die to my self for my sins with You, that I might be with You forever in heaven. Amen. Alleluia!!!


The Man the LORD God formed the man… You are the man! Behold the Man!
Scripture Source Genesis [Gen 2:7] Samuel [2 Sam 12:7] John [Jn 19:15]
Type of Literature Creation Story Parable Narrative
Timing Before the fact of Man After the fact of Man’s sin The fact: the God/Man
Actor God Nathan Pilate
Judge God David/Nathan The Jews
God’s action God makes man God condemns man God redeems man
Sacrifice Creation Lamb/infant Lamb of God
Condition of Man Innocent Fallen Innocent
Result Rule over creation Judge Judged/Judge
Outcome Stewardship Punishment Punishment/Redemption



While one the one hand Jesus is included with other “the Man” statements and confirms his humanity, I must always be aware of the “both/and.” God is inclusive, not exclusive. So too is Jesus inclusive, both God and Man. Thus, when Pilate brings him out a second time, having been informed that Jesus made himself the Son of God and been told by Jesus You would have no power over me if it had not been given to you from above, he attempts to reinstate Jesus, reinstate God as the LORD, your Holy One, The Creator of Israel, your King, [Is 43:15], seating him on the judge’s bench…and saying to the Jews, Behold, your king! [Jn 19:7,11,13,14][3]

This reference to His divinity may be supported in the fact that, in addition, though the NABRE links “Behold the man.” to Is 52:14-15: Even as many were amazed at him— so marred were his features, beyond that of mortals his appearance, beyond that of human beings — So shall he startle many nations, kings shall stand speechless; For those who have not been told shall see, those who have not heard shall ponder it, this appearance, beyond that of human beings may also refer to another Isaiah reference: Go up onto a high mountain, Zion, herald of good news! Cry out at the top of your voice, Jerusalem, herald of good news! Cry out, do not fear! Say to the cities of Judah: Behold your God! [Is 40:9]

When Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your king?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar,” with one stoke, the chief priests, speaking for the people of God, severe ties with all three: Jesus, their King and their God.

[1] Scripture texts in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C. and are used by permission of the copyright owner. All Rights Reserved. No part of the New American Bible may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the copyright owner.  “The Hebrew word ’adam is a generic term meaning “human being.” In chaps. 2–3, however, the archetypal human being is understood to be male (Adam), so the word ’adam is translated “man” here.” NABRE Note on Gen 2:5.

[2] Only later will David produce an heir who will save even himself from His sin. Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you; he is the Messiah, the Lord. [Lk 2:11] For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. [Is 9:6]

[3] Jesus had claimed His kingship of Israel in his design and execution of his entrance into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday as fulfillment of the prophecy: Behold, your king is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, Humble, and mounted on a donkey, Even on a colt, the foal of a donkey. [Zech 9:9] The crowds have wondered Who is this King of glory? and receive the answer in the fulfillment: The LORD of hosts, He is the King of glory…[Ps 24:10] Israel’s king, its redeemer, the LORD of hosts. [Is 44:6]